The Effect of Physical Activity on Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscles: A Literature Review


1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Toos Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Introduction: The importance of changing the color of white adiposities into brown is due to the fact that it can have anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects by adjusting energy balance (by converting storage form into energy consumption). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity on adipose tissue and skeletal muscles. Methods: In this review, were searched online databases including Google Scholar, SID and PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus using the following keywords: “Training”, “Exercise”, “Physical activity”, “Mayokin”, “Adipose tissue”, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α)”,“ Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)”, “Irisin” and ” Uncoupling proteins 1 (UCP-1)”. All articles including research studies, review articles, descriptive and analytical studies, and cross-sectional research, published during 1998-2017, were reviewed. Results: Based on our literature review, physical exercise can be effective as an adipose tissue activated agent in the prevention and treatment of obesity. In this regard, irisin seems to be influenced by a variety of sports activities and is a significant factor in the conversion of white to brown adipose tissues and can play a role in weight loss and increase the body thermogenesis. Conclusion: According to these studies, the expression of irisin and FNDC5 converts white adipose into brown adipose and increases the energy consumption. Regular exercise training on preventing obesity, diabetes and its complications, and improving health have already been proven; but the point is that these beneficial effects are due to the cellular-molecular mechanism is still under discussion.


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